The Taita Hills Wildlife Conservancy derives its name from the surrounding clusters of hills and is an integral part of the Eastern Arc forests classified as an biodiversity hotspot. The conservancy covers an area of 28,000 acres of mosaic habitat where the plant physiognomy is riverine forest, savanna wood and grassland. The vegetation formation is usually dense, stratified and always dominated by Acacia /Commiphora trees and may appear to be evergreen in wet areas such as in the central lowlands of the sanctuary.
The sanctuary straddles the Southern Tsavo West National Park and is an important dispersal area and migrating corridor for wildlife between Tsavo East National Park and Tsavo West National Park and making it a highly valued tourism recreational area and of ecological importance. The topography is generally mountainous that offers breath taking landscape views of the Kilimanjaro, Pare, Uluguru mountains and the clusters of Taita Hills with a seasonal river dividing the sanctuary into valleys and lowland plains.
It hosts cape buffalo, African bush elephant, leopard, lion, cheetah, Masai giraffe, zebra, hartebeest, impala, waterbuck, Thomson’s gazelle, lesser kudu, dik-dik, Hyena , and other smaller animals, including a diversity of birdlife.